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  • Description: Benzol, also known as benzene in modern terminology, is a by-product derived from the high-temperature distillation of coal in the manufacture of coke. It is composed primarily of benzene along with other aromatic hydrocarbons.

Properties and Uses:

  • Composition: Benzol primarily consists of benzene (C6H6) and small amounts of other aromatic hydrocarbons like toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene.
  • Anti-Knock Properties: Benzol has good anti-knock properties, making it suitable as an additive in gasoline to enhance its octane rating. This property helps in reducing engine knocking and improving fuel efficiency in combustion engines.
  • Historical Use: In the past, benzol was used as an engine fuel, especially during World War I and World War II when gasoline shortages necessitated alternative fuels. Its high octane rating made it valuable for aviation fuels and high-performance engines.
  • Industrial Applications: Besides its use as a fuel additive, benzol is also utilized in industrial processes as a solvent and as a raw material in the production of chemicals, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and plastics.

Health and Safety Considerations:

  • Toxicity: Like benzene, benzol is toxic and exposure can lead to serious health effects, including damage to the central nervous system, bone marrow, and kidneys. Prolonged exposure can increase the risk of leukemia.
  • Environmental Impact: Benzol emissions can contribute to air pollution. Proper handling and disposal practices are essential to minimize environmental contamination.


  • Due to its toxicity and health hazards, benzol is subject to strict regulations and guidelines by environmental and occupational health agencies to protect workers and the environment from exposure.

In summary, benzol is a by-product of coke production, primarily consisting of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons. While historically used as an engine fuel due to its anti-knock properties, its toxic nature necessitates careful handling and regulation in industrial and fuel applications.

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