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The Torsen (short for “Torque Sensing”) differential is a type of limited-slip differential (LSD) that operates on a worm and roller mechanism to distribute torque between the wheels of a vehicle. Here’s a detailed explanation of its key features and functions:

The Torsen differential is a mechanical differential designed to distribute torque asymmetrically between the wheels of a vehicle, based on their traction levels. It achieves this through a unique worm and roller mechanism that allows for torque sensing and torque biasing.

Key Features:

  1. Torque Sensing: The Torsen differential senses the difference in rotational speed (and thus torque) between the two output shafts connected to the wheels. This allows it to respond to changes in traction conditions and adjust torque distribution accordingly.
  2. Worm and Roller Mechanism: The Torsen differential utilizes a worm gear and a set of angled roller gears to transmit torque between the input and output shafts. As torque is applied to the input shaft, it rotates the worm gear, which in turn drives the roller gears. The angled rollers create a mechanical locking effect that biases torque distribution to the wheel with more traction.
  3. Asymmetric Torque Biasing: Unlike conventional LSDs, which typically apply a fixed torque bias ratio, the Torsen differential can vary torque distribution asymmetrically between the wheels based on traction conditions. This allows it to provide optimal traction and stability in various driving scenarios, such as cornering, acceleration, and off-road conditions.


  1. Acceleration: During acceleration, the Torsen differential biases torque to the wheel with more traction, maximizing grip and minimizing wheel slip. This improves acceleration performance and ensures efficient power delivery to the ground.
  2. Cornering: In cornering situations, the Torsen differential transfers torque to the outer wheel to help maintain traction and stability through the turn. This reduces understeer and enhances cornering grip, allowing for more precise and controlled handling.


  1. Improved Traction: The torque-sensing capabilities of the Torsen differential enhance traction and grip under various driving conditions, including acceleration, cornering, and off-road maneuvers.
  2. Enhanced Stability: By dynamically adjusting torque distribution between the wheels based on traction levels, the Torsen differential improves vehicle stability and control, particularly in challenging driving scenarios.

Torsen differentials are commonly used in high-performance vehicles, sports cars, off-road vehicles, and all-wheel-drive systems where precise torque distribution and superior traction are essential for optimal performance and handling.

The Torsen differential is a torque-sensing limited-slip differential that utilizes a worm and roller mechanism to distribute torque asymmetrically between the wheels, enhancing traction, stability, and performance in various driving conditions.

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